Women Health

Infertility: Men or Women

Are you been having unprotected sex and trying to conceive for more than 12 months, and no results! well don’t lose hope first understand what can be a cause of your conception failure. Cause for infertility, may be one partner cannot contribute to conception, or a woman cannot carry a pregnancy to full term.

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Types

Infertility can be primary or secondary.

Primary infertility is when a couple has not conceived after trying for at least 12 months without using birth control

Secondary infertility is when they have previously conceived but are no longer able to.

Causes in Men

The following are common causes of infertility in men.

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  • Erectile dysfunction: Less erect penis or impotence is a big cause of Infertility.
  • Ejaculation Disorder: If the ejaculatory ducts are blocked, semen may be ejaculated into the bladder
  • Sperm count: The man ejaculates a low number of sperm. A sperm count of under 15 million is considered low. Around one third of couples have difficulty conceiving due to a low sperm count.
  • Sperm motility: Low sperm motility ( swimming) would not allow sperms to reach the egg.
  • Testosterone levels: Low levels of testosterone, the male sex hormone, may be responsible for infertility in some men.
  • Medical condition: This could be a testicular infection, cancer, or surgery.
  • Overheated testicles: Causes include an undescended testicle, a varicocele, or varicose vein in the scrotum, the use of saunas or hot tubs, wearing tight clothes, and working in hot environments.
  • Hormonal imbalance: Hypogonadism, for example, can lead to a testosterone deficiency.
  • Anabolic steroids: Popular with bodybuilders and athletes, long-term use can seriously reduce sperm count and mobility.
  • Chemotherapy: Some types may significantly reduce sperm count.
  • Illegal drugs: Consumption of marijuana and cocaine can lower the sperm count.
  • Age: Male fertility starts to fall after 40 years.
  • Exposure to chemicals: Pesticides, for example, may increase the risk.
  • Excess alcohol consumption: This may lower male fertility. Moderate alcohol consumption has not been shown to lower fertility in most men, but it may affect those who already have a low sperm count.
  • Overweight or obesity: This may reduce the chance of conceiving.
  • Mental stress: Stress can be a factor, especially if it leads to reduced sexual activity.

Causes in women

Infertility in women can also have a range of causes.

Risk factors

Risk factors that increase the risk include:

Smoking an lead to infertility

Smoking significantly increases your risk of infertility
  • Age: The ability to conceive starts to fall around the age of 32 years.
  • Smoking: Smoking significantly increases the risk of infertility in both men and women, and it may undermine the effects of fertility treatment. Smoking during pregnancy increases the chance of pregnancy loss. Passive smoking has also been linked to lower fertility.
  • Alcohol: Any amount of alcohol consumption can affect the chances of conceiving.
  • Obesity: This can increase the risk of infertility in women as well as men.
  • Eating disorders: If an eating disorder leads to serious weight loss, fertility problems may arise.
  • Diet: A lack of folic acid, iron, zinc, and vitamin B-12 can affect fertility. Women who are at risk, including those on a vegan diet, should ask the doctor about supplements.
  • Exercise: Both too much and too little exercise can lead to fertility problems.
  • Sexually transmitted Disease: Chlamydia can damage the fallopian tubes in a woman and cause inflammation in a man’s scrotum. Some other STDs may also cause infertility.
  • Exposure to some chemicals: Some pesticides, herbicides, metals, such as lead, and solvents have been linked to fertility problems in both men and women. A mouse study has suggested that ingredients in some household detergents may reduce fertility.
  • Mental stress: This may affect female ovulation and male sperm production and can lead to reduced sexual activity.

Medical conditions

Some medical conditions can affect fertility.

Ovulation disorders are most common cause of infertility in women. Ovulation is the monthly release of an egg, but cycles can be anovulatory.

Ovulation disorders can be due to:

  • Premature ovarian failure: The ovaries stop working before the age of 40 years.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): The ovaries function abnormally and ovulation may not occur.
  • Hyperprolactinemia: If prolactin levels are high, and the woman is not pregnant or breastfeeding, it may affect ovulation and fertility.
  • Poor egg quality: Eggs that are damaged or develop genetic abnormalities cannot sustain a pregnancy. The older a woman is, the higher the risk.
  • Thyroid problems: An overactive or underactive thyroid gland can lead to a hormonal imbalance.
  • Chronic conditions: These include AIDS or cancer.

Problems in the uterus or fallopian tubes can prevent the egg from traveling from the ovary to the uterus, or womb and If the egg does not travel, it can be harder to conceive naturally.

Causes include:

  • Surgery: Pelvic  and cervical surgeries can sometimes cause scarring or damage to the fallopian tubes or shortening of the cervix.
  • Submucosal fibroids: Benign or non-cancerous tumors in uterus can interfere with implantation or block the fallopian tube, preventing sperm from fertilizing the egg.
  • Endometriosis: Cells that normally occur within the lining of the uterus start growing elsewhere in the body.
  • Previous sterilization treatment: In women who have chosen to have their fallopian tubes blocked, the process can be reversed, but the chances of becoming fertile again are not high.

Medications, treatments, and drugs

Some drugs can affect fertility in a woman.

  • Chemotherapy: Some chemotherapy drugs can result in ovarian failure. In some cases, this may be permanent.
  • Radiation therapy: If this is aimed near the reproductive organs, it can increase the risk of fertility problems.
  • Illegal drugs: Some women who use marijuana or cocaine may have fertility problems.

Treatment

Treatment will depend on many factors, including the age, how long the infertility has lasted, causes of infertility, and their general state of health. Even then it is recommended for the couples to have more frequent intercourse near ovulation days.

 

 

 

 

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